What was the impact of the Aboriginal Protection Act?
The 1997 Bringing Them Home report found that children removed from their families were disadvantaged in the following ways: They were more likely to come to the attention of the police as they grew into adolescence. They were more likely to suffer low self-esteem, depression and other mental ...
The Aborigines Protection Act 1909 was repealed in 1969 by the Aborigines Act 1969; however the legacy of the legislation affected many Aboriginal families and members of the Stolen Generations in New South Wales.
90.77% of voters voted in favour of the 'Constitution Alteration (Aboriginals) 1967', which was the highest 'yes' vote ever recorded in a federal referendum.
The assimilation policy was formally abolished by the Commonwealth Government in 1973, in favour of self-management by Indigenous people. In 1979, an independent community-controlled child-care agency was established.
Through the 1920s and 1930s, the board became increasingly draconian. This provoked significant Aboriginal resistance, with calls for its reform or abolition strengthening until an inquiry was held in 1937. That inquiry ultimately resulted in the passage of the Welfare Board legislation in 1940.
The leaders were bereft of ideas to cope with the situation at the time and this was part of the reason why the society's leadership disintegrated. Another failure of the Aborigines' Rights Protection Society was that they could not ensure adequate African representation on the Legislative and Executive Councils.
1969. By 1969, all states had repealed the legislation allowing for the removal of Aboriginal children under the policy of 'protection'.
The most recent genocidal massacre took place in the Northern Territory in 1928, when several hundred Warlpiri, Anmatyere and Kaytetye people were killed in reprisal for killing a dingo trapper.
After European settlers arrived in 1788, thousand of aborigines died from diseases; colonists systematically killed many others. At first contact, there were over 250,000 aborigines in Australia. The massacres ended in the 1920 leaving no more than 60,000.
The event, of course, being the successful 1967 referendum in which an overwhelming majority of Australians voted to amend certain sections in the Australian Constitution concerning Aboriginal people.
Did the 1967 referendum end discrimination?
The 1967 referendum did not end discrimination in Australia but instead opened a door for the Australian Government to make specific laws that applied to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples that could assist in addressing inequalities.
Most Australians thought that the 1967 referendum would allow full citizenship rights for Indigenous Australians. But the referendum didn't give Aborigines the vote, equal pay or citizenship rights. It also didn't address their rates of pay or personal freedoms – issues that also needed urgent attention.
Assimilation policy failed in Senegal because; The policy was expensive, especially the costs of privileges it provided such as education. There was problems of cultural differences between Africans and the French. African chiefs who had lost their authority over their subjects strongly opposed policy of assimilation.
Several main reasons why Indian assimilation failed was because of “land expropriation, reservation confinement, the racial antagonism of many Whites, and the desire to teach Indians the ways of Euro-American civilization before integrating them into American society”.
In the first half of the twentieth century, right up until the 1960s, the Australian government sought to create a single, uniform white Australian culture. This was pursued through assimilation policies, which had devastating effects on Indigenous communities.
This history of injustice has meant that many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders have been denied access to basic human rights, such as rights to health, housing, employment and education. Did you know that there were over 250 distinct Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages at the time of colonisation?
The Bringing Them Home report (produced by the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families in 1987), says that "at least 100,000" children were removed from their parents.
These policies meant that Aboriginal people were often sent to live in designated areas, away from their country and families. This lead to the loss of 'identity' that many Aboriginal people experience today by pressuring them to assimilate into the European way of life.
Aborigines' Rights Protection Society (ARPS) to prevent the wholesale expropriation of African lands by European entrepreneurs or officials. The ARPS went on to campaign against the exclusion of qualified Africans from the colonial administration.
In NSW and wider Australia, there is a history of First Nations people fighting for land rights. However, while there have been successes, there are a significant number of unprocessed claims in NSW.
What is the Aborigines Protection Act 1905?
Aborigines Act 1905
Established the position of Chief Protector who was the legal guardian of 'every aboriginal and half-caste child' to the age of 16 years.
The Stolen Generations refers to a period in Australia's history where Aboriginal children were removed from their families through government policies. This happened from the mid-1800s to the 1970s.
This grassroots movement was described as 'the people's apology'. Between 1997 and 1999 all state and territory parliaments officially apologised to the Stolen Generations, their families and communities for the laws, policies and practices which had governed forcible removal.
Today, Stolen Generations survivors live right across Australia. Most (73%) live in New South Wales, Queensland and Western Australia.
In 1803, British colonisation began and in 1876, Truganini died. She was the last full-blood and tribal Tasmanian Aboriginal. Within her one lifetime, a whole society and culture were removed from the face of the earth.
It is estimated that massacres by white settlers resulted in the death of approximately 11% of the Aboriginal population between 1836 and 1851.
Aboriginal Australians could be the oldest population of humans living outside of Africa, where one theory says they migrated from in boats 70,000 years ago. Australia's first people—known as Aboriginal Australians—have lived on the continent for over 50,000 years.
For thousands of years, the Indigenous people of Australia set fire to the land. Long before Australia was invaded and colonised by Europeans, fire management techniques - known as "cultural burns" - were being practised. The cool-burning, knee-high blazes were designed to happen continuously and across the landscape.
Police and settlers hunted down Aboriginal families, pursuing them for kilometres across their country, before gunning them down in a creek bed in north-west New South Wales. Official records state at least 40 men, women and children were killed, but other historians suggest hundreds of Aboriginal people died that day.
Based on the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) projections, the number of Indigenous Australians in 2022 was estimated to be around 896,300. The Indigenous Australian population is projected to reach about 1.1 million people by 2031 (ABS 2019c).
Was the 1967 referendum the most successful?
The 1967 Referendum was the most successful in our history winning 93 percent of votes cast. This empowered the national government to make laws in respect of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples that could assist in addressing inequalities.
Clearly the Referendum was a trigger for subsequent Commonwealth intervention in Indigenous affairs. It was one of the significant turning points.
Although a majority of voters said 'yes' to the Constitution for a federated Australia, this did not amount to a majority of the population of the colonies. At the time of Federation, voting was not compulsory. Many eligible people did not vote and a considerable number were not eligible at all.
Of forty-four referendums, there have been five instances – in 1937, twice in 1946, and once each in 1977 and 1984 – where a national Yes vote has been achieved but failed to win a majority of states.
The proposed law (Constitution Alteration (Aboriginals) 1967) sought to give the Commonwealth Parliament power to make laws with respect to Aboriginal people wherever they lived in Australia. It also sought to make it possible to include Aboriginal people in national censuses.
The first question sought to break the nexus that existed between the number of Senators and Members of the House of Representatives in order to permit an increase in the number of Members without increasing the number of Senators. This question was defeated by a 3 to 2 majority of Australian voters.
1967 Australian referendum (Aboriginals)
|Invalid or blank votes||91,464||1.58%|
On 13 September 2007, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (Declaration). The Declaration affirms the 'minimum standards for the survival, dignity and well-being' of Indigenous peoples.
The Federal Council for Aboriginal Advancement (FCAA) campaigned for issues beyond voting rights. Research one of these issues, and describe how this helped Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people achieve one of their main aims.
Why were Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children taken from their families? The forcible removal of First Nations children from their families was based on assimilation policies, which claimed that the lives of First Nations people would be improved if they became part of white society.
How successful was the assimilation policy?
On the other hand, the French policy of assimilation was largely not successful because it tried to impose the French system, culture and general way of life on her colonies.
it was replaced with the policy of association. This policy is of the opposing idea that, the relationship between the conqueror and the conquered, of white and black peoples, should be one of 'association', not one of identity and merging; it emphasised cooperation between the rulers and the ruled.
The purpose of forced Aboriginal assimilation was the extensive annexation of Indigenous lands and resources – the colonization of Canada. The nation of Canada's base was built in a way that did not recognize a place in Canada's future for Indigenous Peoples.
The Other Side of Assimilation and Allotment
Other American Indians adopted subtler techniques to resist assimilation. One of those techniques involved selecting contiguous allotments to preserve the integrity of extended kin groups, or to use private property to escape the watchful eye of agency superintendents.
An Interior Department report identified more than 400 Native American boarding schools that assimilated and often abused Indigenous children. The probe has uncovered more than 500 deaths so far.
Amendments to the Act in 1915 gave the Aborigines Protection Board in New South Wales broad powers to remove Aboriginal children from their families, resulting in the Stolen Generations. The Act was in force from 1909 to 1969, when it was repealed by the Aborigines Act 1969.
On 13 February 2008 Prime Minister Kevin Rudd made a formal apology to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, particularly to the Stolen Generations whose lives had been blighted by past government policies of forced child removal and assimilation.
Aboriginal culture dates as far back as 80,000 years, but modern canvas works are finding popularity with international buyers.
It applied to all Aboriginal people but contained particular provisions for children, including the right of the Protection Board to remove youths from Aboriginal Reserves and place them into service. The Act was amended in 1915, 1918, 1936, 1940, 1943 and 1963. It was repealed by the Aborigines Act 1969.
The Act created the position of Chief Protector of Aborigines who became the legal guardian of every Aboriginal child to the age of 16 years, and permitted authorities to 'send and detain' Aboriginal children in institutions and in 'service' (work).
What was the impact on Aboriginal people?
European colonisation had a devastating impact on Aboriginal communities and cultures. Aboriginal people were subjected to a range of injustices, including mass killings or being displaced from their traditional lands and relocated on missions and reserves in the name of protection.
The Aboriginal Protection Act, 'to provide for the protection and management of the Aboriginal natives of Victoria' was passed on 11 November 1869. It gave the Board power to prescribe where Aboriginal people could live, the way they could earn a living, and the distribution of government funding and food and supplies.
1969. By 1969, all states had repealed the legislation allowing for the removal of Aboriginal children under the policy of 'protection'.
In NSW, under the Aborigines Protection Act 1909, the NSW Aborigines Welfare Board had wide ranging control over the lives of Aboriginal people, including the power to remove Aboriginal children from their families under a policy of 'assimilation'.
This was said to protect Aboriginal people from frontier violence, but it actually served to dispossess them from their ancestral lands. Over time, the Protection Board sought more power and subsequently received it under the Aborigines Protection Act 1909 (NSW).
In the 1860s, Victoria became the first state to pass laws authorising Aboriginal children to be removed from their parents. Similar policies were later adopted by other states and territories – and by the federal government when it was established in the 1900s.
Protection and assimilation policies which impacted harshly on Indigenous people included separate education for Aboriginal children, town curfews, alcohol bans, no social security, lower wages, State guardianship of all Aboriginal children and laws that segregated Indigenous people into separate living areas, mainly ...
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are the first peoples of Australia, meaning they were here for thousands of years prior to colonisation.
|State or territory of usual residence||Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander||Total|
|Australian Capital Territory||9,544||453,558|
Since the colonisation of Australia by European settlers, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have experienced extreme hardships, ranging from the loss of traditional culture and homelands to the forced removal of children and denial of citizenship rights.
What is the Aboriginal Protection Act 1886?
The Aborigines Protection Act 1886 (transcript)
The Act changed the definition of 'Aboriginal' to exclude those who were 'half-caste' (only one parent was Aboriginal). This began the policy of forcing those who were 'half-caste' off the missions and stations which is what led to many of them being shut down.
Aboriginal Protection Act 1869 (Vic) (transcript)
The Aboriginal Protection Act 1869 made Victoria the first colony to create an act that allowed the government to totally regulate the lives of Aboriginal people.